avnerstein asked:
Can you recommend a source of information about the influence of Zoroastrianism on Judaism? Thanks!

So sorry not to have replied before. This is probably way too late now but just in case - you could start with N. F. Gier, Theology Bluebook, 3rd edition, 1994; and Richard Foltz, Religions of the Silk Road.

samque asked:
Enjoyed interview on WLRN. I have been recently interested in the disciples of Jesus that went the other way. Western Christians know about the branch via Rome. But what can you tell me about the spread to the Africa, Asia, and as far East (I hear) as India. Christianity beyond the reach of the Roman Empire. What happened when this new religion arrived I these far away place?

Well I mention in my book reports of eg the Buddhist king Gondophares being converted by St Thomas, and of St Thomas’s missionary work in India where he was allegedly murdered by Brahmins. I also mention the eunuch court official from Meroe (below Egypt)  converted by Philip.  The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles are worth looking at for their accounts of missionary work outside the Roman Empire.

A Mossy Graveyard

Our Church
A Personal History of the Church of England
Roger Scruton, Atlantic Books, $32.95, 224 pp.

According to Roger Scruton, religion has been an embarrassment to the English since the seventeenth century—one of the topics, like sex, that you just don’t discuss. Ever since fervent Protestants left England to set up their city on a hill in America, England—exhausted by the religious conflicts of the Civil War—has settled for peace rather than ardent belief. The difference in religious fervor between the two countries never ceases to amaze both the British and Americans. Anglicanism has both molded and reflected a people who are slightly embarrassed and skeptical about religion, and for whom religion is more a social matter than a relationship with God. The English, who “know in their hearts that faith is in large part a human invention,” prefer compromise to zeal, and want the transcendent only in small doses.

 In addition to being England’s foremost conservative philosopher, Scruton is organist at his local Anglican church. His “thoughts at one remove from faith,” Scruton rightly puts himself in the noble line of skeptical Englishmen from the seventeenth-century political philosopher Thomas Hobbes and the eighteenth-century essayist Joseph Addison to George Orwell and Philip Larkin,perhaps the greatest poet of religious nostalgia,“for whom this strange form of holiness [Anglicanism] has been the best that can be done in the matter of religion.”

Ever since Henry VIII declared himself supreme head of the Church of England for dynastic reasons rather than out of any reformist zeal, the church has been more a sociopolitical institution than a religious one. In the settlement of 1688-89 following the Civil War, the English were quite happy to see their national church sacrifice conviction for peace. The Anglican Church was to be the keeper of civil order, rather than the guardian of a narrow faith. It accommodated   non-papal Catholics and Protestants (as the world-wide Anglican Communion still does today), while more fervent believers, whether Catholic or Protestant, were permitted to practice their own faiths independently. As David Hume noted approvingly, the English “are now settled into the most cool indifference with regard to religious matters that is to be found in any nation of the world.”

 Critics of the Church of England condemn  it for being too worldly and too committed to shoring up the political and social status quo. But  Scruton turns what many consider to be the vices inherent in being an established church on their head.Yes, the nineteenth-century church (as depicted in Trollope’s brilliant  novel The Warden and in Barchester Towers) was a career path and welfare service for the elite. Yet that church was also the home of Christian social reformers and antislavery campaigners. In Scruton’s view, the glories of the established church far outweigh its weaknesses. What he loves and values is precisely the church’s role in forging the social fabric of England, the way it has both reflected and helped to create a nation, a people, and a culture. One of the pleasures of this book is Scruton’s wonderfully succinct, knowledgeable, and illuminating guide to that broader culture (Scruton has specialised in aesthetics throughout his career). He celebrates the profound influence of the church on the nation’s music, from plainsong through the great Victorian hymn writers, to Vaughan Williams and Benjamin Britten. He traces the church’s formative role in the lives and work of painters, architects, and writers. Bunyan, Milton, Blake, Auden and countless others  owed an immeasurable debt to the King James Bible and the Book of Common Prayer, which make manifest what Scruton considers to be the very soul of the Church of England.

 For Scruton the church is England, an England he knew and loved in his youth and that he believes is dying. Our Church is very much an elegy for that lost world. But of course, as the book’s subtitle makes clear, Scruton’s is a personal history. His vision of the church, for example, is not one even his own father would accept. As a teenager the author, much against the wishes of his father, who was an atheist and a socialist, began secretly visiting his local parish church. Scruton pere saw the church as part of the apparatus of class oppression. For his son, however, it came to represent a cherishedrural and conservative social order, one that unitedthe people in pride and love of country.That England finds its quintessence in the rural village church where Anglo Saxons, medievals, seventeenth-century Puritan iconoclasts, and nineteenth-century gothic revivalists have all left a legacy in stone. The village church, with its monuments to the local gentry, as well as to the ordinary men who gave their lives in two world wars, connects believers and unbelievers alike to a shared past. The village church is, for Scruton, “an immortal projection of England in a realm beyond space and time.”

To what extent the church ever spoke for the nation as a whole is, of course, open to question. As an organ of the state, it was inevitably part of an often unjust social and economic order. It long neglected the urban poor, and scrambled to catch up with the welfare efforts of the Methodists and other Nonconformist denominations in the nineteenth century. Scruton’s conservatism perhaps makes him too forgiving of the faults inherent in an established church. In a similar fashion, he mischievously celebrates the Church of England for the way in which it caters to the spiritually unambitious, those who want their relationship with God to be gotten with the minimum of effort. But this seems self-defeating. As the sociologist Raymond Stark has pointed out, churches that demand little commitment and few sacrifices reap little loyalty or sacrifice in return. 

 Now, of course, “our national church,” as Scruton calls it, speaks for a dwindling minority. And this, he acknowledges, exposes the fundamental weakness of establishment. A strictly national church depends for its credibility on there being a cohesive sense of social identity and morality. Yet much to Scruton’s dismay, religious and ethnic pluralism has brought about a “new ideology of non-discrimination” that no longer privileges Christianity and the culture it produced. 

 But though the Church of England may be dying, there will always be those who love and defend it. Even the passionate atheist Christopher Hitchens acknowledged that he was still moved by the English village church. Its smell and muffled silence still evoke a longing for the transcendent, a nostalgia for a mythical English past, and a feeling of awe toward a tumultuous history made present again in stone, monuments, war memorials, and faded banners. “A serious house on serious earth it is, / In whose blent air all our compulsions meet, / Are recognized, and robed as destinies,” was how Philip Larkin famously put it. That is the church Scruton dreams of behind the organist’s curtain while playing to an ever-dwindling congregation.

 Selina O’Grady is the author of And Man Created God: A History of the World at the Time of Jesus (St Martin’s Press, to be published in March by Picador).


luparalestes asked:
Hi Selina. Just finished your great book. I've spent about the past four years researching around early Christianity, was fantastic to have it situated among the other religions of the period, fascinating. I'm a novelist and my new book is a faction account about Jesus and Paul and the transformation of a small sect of Judaism. While we don't agree on absolutely everything (who does about religion), there is a lot of concurrence in our views, I think you'd find it an interesting read anyway.

Hi Jonathan, I would love to see the proofs, though can’t promise anything. Tumblr isn’t letting me answer this privately, but you could always contact Frances Owen at Atlantic (my publishers).

All the best


i-machiavellian-blr asked:
Thank you for your well written book "And Man Created God." i would strongly recommend you also read two books that comport with your book. 1) Joseph Atwill, Caesar's Messiah (shows that Bernice - daughter of Herod, Alexander Tiberius Roman general in Jerusalem, and Josephus (a Roman propagandist) wrote the Gospels in an attempt to create a religion of peace that render under Caesar taxes to co-opt the Jewish zealots). 2) Barrie Wilson, When Jesus Became Christian.

Thanks for the suggestions


A seminal epoch explored in terms of statecraft and religion, sociology and belief.

The first century B.C. was largely dominated by imperial Rome and its regional client kings. Octavian defeated Marc Antony and Cleopatra and became Augustus, master and overlord of the Roman world. In its German campaign, Rome suffered disastrous defeat. It was a time when conquest by trade was preferable to war, when mystery cults held sway, and pagan gods could be human enough to do business with mortal men. Charity was an unknown notion to the Romans, but clearly, religion held empires together. In Alexandria, still under Hellenic influence, compassionate Isis was the divinity of choice. The Arabian exporters of frankincense and unguents had their own gods, as did Palmyra. China, under Confucianism, was the world’s oldest empire. There, the crafty usurper Wang Mang displaced the Han Dynasty for a few unhappy years. Despite Roman hegemony in Jerusalem and most of the known world, though, the Jews would not or could not be assimilated. In her fine synthesis, journalist O’Grady (co-editor: A Deep but Dazzling Darkness: An Anthology of Personal Experiences of God, 2003, etc.) brings antiquity to vivid life, relying on myriad sources, including Horace, Josephus and Saul of Tarsus, Suetonius, Cicero, Plutarch, Schama and Gibbon. There are tunics, togas, coins, carvings, slaves and struggles, all vibrantly presented in an admirably accessible text. O’Grady demonstrates the universal symbiosis of state and faith before and during the formative years of Christianity, and she offers a secular gloss of the remarkable success of Pauline Christianity in a tumultuous world.

A wonderfully illuminating, prodigious tour de force of ecclesiastical anthropology.

Review of And Man Created God in Country Life - 16th Jan 2013 by Barnaby Rogerson

Review of And Man Created God in Country Life - 16th Jan 2013 by Barnaby Rogerson